The region of Cappadocia is defined as the land Black Sea on the North, Malatya on the east, Taurus Mountains on the South. Cappadocia includes Nevşehir, Niğde, Kayseri, Aksaray, Kırşehir.
About 10 million years ago there were active volcanoes , those are; Mount Erciyes, Mount Göllüdağ, Mount Hasan, Mount Melendiz. After eruption of these mountains, Cappadocia started to be formed. This interesting rock formations, known as fairy chimneys have been formed as the result of the erosion of this tufa layer, sculpted by wind and flood water, running down on the slopes of the valleys.
There are various types of fairy chimneys. These are ; the fairy chimneys with caps, cones, mushroom like forms, columns and pointed rocks.
Göreme National Park and Cappadocia were placed on the World Heritage List in 1985 as 7 parts: Göreme National Park, Derinkuyu Underground City, Kaymaklı Underground City, Karlı Church, Theodore Church, Karain Güvercinlikleri (Karain Columbaries) and Soğanlı Archaeological Site.